Lesson Summary

Pre-lesson preparation

Students must complete a pre-reading assignment (the first chapter of Blown To Bits, which is available online or in the Resources folder). This pre-reading can be assigned at the end of Unit 0.

Summary

Students will read about the "Digital Explosion" and discuss exponential growth.  They will discuss and share insights on what a world without digital communication would be like and investigate some of the things that are possible because of digital communication. They will then share their findings with the class.

Outcomes

  • Students will explain how innovation affects communication, interaction, and cognition.
  • Students will explain how computing has impacted innovation in other fields.
  • Students will analyze effects of computing including increased ability to collaborate.
  • Students will explain connections between technology, and economic and social differences.
  • Students will describe how widespread access to information facilitates the identification of problems, development of solutions, and dissemination of results and the lack of that access limits all of these functions.

Overview

Session 1

  1. Getting Started - (5 min) Set a timer. In your journal list all the ways you communicated in the past 24 hours both in person and using technology. Give students 1 minute to list all of the ways they have engaged in communication today (verbal/non-verbal). Compile a class list of commucations used.
  2. Activity (30 min) - Teams brainstorm on their usage of digital communication and discuss how life would be different without it.
  3. Activity (10 min) - Think-Pair-Share and independent writing.
  4. (5 min) - Pair activity on exponential growth
  5. Homework - Each team member will write one reflection question, or interview 3 people about what would be different in a world without digital communication and write up what they learn.

Session 2

  1. Getting Started (5 min) - Journal Activity
  2. Activity (15 min) - Teams engage in algorithm / calculation activity without the benefit of digital tools.
  3. Activity (30 min) Teams brainstorm and organize ideas about the impact of digital communication.
  4. Homework - Students will write a reflection on how a particular aspect of society depends on computers.

Session 3

  1. Getting Started / Activity (35 min) - Students will each write a short story about a world without digital communication.
  2. Activity (15 min) - Students will journal about their social media post from Session 1, and share with a partner. 

 

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Creativity
  • EU 1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
    • LO 1.2.4 - Collaborate in the creation of computational artifacts. [P6]
      • EK 1.2.4E - Collaboration facilitates the application of multiple perspectives (including sociocultural perspectives) and diverse talents and skills in developing computational artifacts.
      • EK 1.2.4F - A collaboratively created computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas.
Big Idea - Data
  • EU 3.2 - Computing facilitates exploration and the discovery of connections in information.
    • LO 3.2.1 - Extract information from data to discover and explain connections or trends. [P1]
      • EK 3.2.1B - Large data sets provide opportunities for identifying trends, making connections in data, and solving problems.
      • EK 3.2.1C - Computing tools facilitate the discovery of connections in information within large data sets.
Big Idea - Internet
  • EU 6.1 - The Internet is a network of autonomous systems.
    • LO 6.1.1 - Explain the abstractions in the Internet and how the Internet functions. [P3]
      • EK 6.1.1A - The Internet connects devices and networks all over the world.
      • EK 6.1.1D - The Internet and the systems built on it facilitate collaboration.
Big Idea - Impact
  • EU 7.1 - Computing enhances communication, interaction, and cognition.
    • LO 7.1.1 - Explain how computing innovations affect communication, interaction, and cognition. [P4]
      • EK 7.1.1A - Email, SMS, and chat have fostered new ways to communicate and collaborate.
      • EK 7.1.1E - Widespread access to information facilitates the identification of problems, development of solutions, and dissemination of results.
      • EK 7.1.1H - Social media, such as blogs and Twitter, have enhanced dissemination.
  • EU 7.2 - Computing enables innovation in nearly every field.
    • LO 7.2.1 - Explain how computing has impacted innovations in other fields. [P1]
      • EK 7.2.1F - Moore's law has encouraged industries that use computers to effectively plan future research and development based on anticipated increases in computing power.
  • EU 7.3 - Computing has global effects — both beneficial and harmful — on people and society.
    • LO 7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
      • EK 7.3.1A - Innovations enabled by computing raise legal and ethical concerns.
  • EU 7.4 - Computing innovations influence and are influenced by the economic, social, and cultural contexts in which they are designed and used.
    • LO 7.4.1 - Explain the connections between computing and real-world contexts, including economic, social, and cultural contexts. [P1]
      • EK 7.4.1A - The innovation and impact of social media and online access varies in different countries and in different socioeconomic groups.
      • EK 7.4.1B - Mobile, wireless, and networked computing have an impact on innovation throughout the world.
      • EK 7.4.1D - Groups and individuals are affected by the "digital divide" - differing access to computing and the Internet based on socioeconomic or geographic characteristics.

NGSS Practices:

  • 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
  • 7. Engaging in argument from evidence
  • 8. Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information

NGSS Content:

  • HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

Key Concepts

Chapter 1 of "Blown to Bits" and the lesson motivate students to begin thinking about the advancement of technology and its impact on many aspects of their lives (both positively and negatively). Subsequent lessons will research particular impacts on society in more depth.

Students will consider a world without digital communication to emphasize the impact that computers have on their everyday lives and how integral computers and digital communication have become to our ordinary existence.


Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: none

TEACHER RESOURCES

In the Lesson Resources Folder:

Prior to the Lesson:

  • Provide students a copy of the “Questions to Consider” (in the resources folder) and assign the Blown to Bits reading assignment (above)

During the lesson, students will need:

  • Student Journal

 

Lesson Plan

Session 1

This lesson assumes that students have either taken a previous CS course or that you have done Unit 0, so that students know what a computer is, how to write a basic algorithm, and the basic history of technology. It also assumes that students have read Blown to Bits, Chapter 1.

Getting Started (5 min)

Set a timer. In your journal list all the ways you communicated in the past 24 hours both in person and using technology. Give students 1 minute to list all of the ways they have engaged in communication today (verbal/non-verbal). Compile a class list of commucations used.

Activity (30 min) – Form Teams and Investigate Communication and Digital Communication

Use a creative method for dividing students up into teams of 3-4 (line up by birthday, etc.)

You can use the presentation "What If Part 1" as a guide through this lesson.

  • Have each team underline any communication methods that ALL team members wrote down.
  • Using the Social Media Post Template handout, have students create a social media post that reflects their current status. Display these posts around the room.
  • Present the scenario: what if all digital communication suddenly stopped working?
    • Encourage discussion. Have teams brainstorm a list of possible answers to the following question:  "What will be impacted if digital communication is no longer an option?"
  • How could you check the news to find out what caused the communication issue? 
    • Point out that all digital devices would no longer work because they use digital communication internally between the processor and memory.
    • In your teams, create a definition of digital.  (Remember, you don’t have any digital devices to look it up!)
    • What kinds of communication will still work? (Hint: Not the TV: all of the signals are digital.)
    • Have teams try to build up a comprehensive list of the things we use that are digital.
    • Have teams complete the graphic organizer of what would be different in each of these places without digital communication:
      At School At Home Other Places
           

Activity (10 min) - Think-Pair-Share 

Have students discuss with their partner the answers to the pre-reading questions from Blown To Bits Chapter 1 (see Questions to Consider in Teacher Resources). 

Choose an open-ended question from the pre-reading questions. Either:

  • give examples of things today that are stored in bits
  • describe examples of innovations that are neither good nor bad
  • list ways that life is more complicated because of the explosion of bits

Have partners pick their most interesting answers and post them or write them on something in the front of the room to share with the class.

 

Activity: (5 min)

Have students work in pairs to discuss and answer the following questions. (If possible, provide students with calculators. An exact value is not required to formulate an answer. The choices reflect three different types of growth.)

Someone offers you a summer job with a choice of three pay rates:

1. $10 per hour for eight hours of work for day for 30 days.

2. One dollar the first day, two dollars the second day, three dollars the third day, and so on (increasing by one dollar each day).

3. One cent on day one, two cents on day two, four cents on day three, and so on (doubling each day for 30 days).

Which pay rate would you choose? Why? What does this illustrate?

Solution: After 30 days,

  • The first choice nets 10*8*30 = $2,400.
  • The second offer will pay $465.
  • The third offer will pay 2 to the 30th power (minus 1) cents, which is over $10 million.

Clearly, the last choice is the best, even though it starts with the lowest value (although you are unlikely to receive such an offer!)

This activity illustrates exponential growth (which was discussed in the chapter in the context of data growth).

Homework: 

Students may not use any digital devices to complete this activity.  This assignment must be handwritten.  If students need a copy of their assignment for the class discussion, they must write another copy. Have students submit their assignment at the start of the next class.

  1. Have the students interview three different people, outside of the class, using the following question:
    • How would life be different if we didn’t have any means of digital communication?
  2. Have the students write a summary of the interview that includes the following information:
    • Summary of the responses
    • Your opinion about the responses
    • What you learned by talking to others about the impact of losing digital communication

Session 2

Getting Started (5 min)

Have students write in their journals: What is the most important digital device in your life? Why is it the most important?

Activity (15 min) - Develop a Communication Plan 

Use the presentation "What If Part 2" to remind the students about the scenario from the previous class.  Working in the same teams from the previous class, have the students develop a step-by-step plan for getting a message to their parents without using any form of digital communication.  This activity must be completed without using any digital tool. 

Activity (30 min) - Discussing The Impact of Digital Communication

Teams brainstorm and organize ideas about the impact of digital communication. This activity uses the results from the Day 1 homework.

Discussion: Students work in their teams to answer the following questions: 

  1. How have the Web and the Internet changed the way people communicate and collaborate? (be sure to include email, SMS, online problem solving, data gathering and analysis & chat)
  2. How does the impact of computing innovations differ between national and socioeconomic groups?
  3. Describe a way in which social media has changed the way people communicate in the U.S.
  4. In what ways have the Internet and the Web changed health care, access to information, entertainment, and online learning?  How do these changes vary in different parts of the world?
  5. Describe how two groups (e.g., in different geographic regions, from different cultural backgrounds, in different socioeconomic classes or different work industries) are impacted differently by social media and online access.
  6. Describe how the impact of social media and online access differs in two different countries.
  7. How does digitally enabled collaboration enhance human capabilities?

 

Homework

Each member of your team should choose one of the following topics:

  • Science
  • Art
  • News
  • Music
  • Government
  • Business

*Note – these topics are just suggestions

In the following question, fill in the blank with your chosen topic. Write a paragraph responding to the question.  Be sure to include examples and evidence to support your ideas and answer.

  • How does _________ depend on computers?

Session 3

Warm up / Activity 1 (35 min) - A Short Story

Imagine that the digital world that we know now never existed.  There are no computers or cell phones -- no digital communication at all.  Write a short story that takes place in this non-digital world.  Include how your characters would communicate in different situations and how daily life would be.  Be as creative as you can.

If time permits, have a few students share their stories.

Activity 2 (15 min) - Reflections

For this activity, students need to use their last social media post the created on Day 1.

Journal - Hooray! Digital communication has been restored after three years. Look at your last social media post, and think about the following questions. 

  1. How could a stranger interpret your last digital footprint? Was it positive, negative, or neutral?
  2. How could you change your post to leave a more positive digital footprint?
  3. What would be your first social media post now that digital communication has been restored?

Have students discuss their reflections with an elbow partner.


Options for Differentiated Instruction

Consider different ways to choose teams and assign team roles

Interview with a User of an Enhancing Technology

If you are familiar with an individual who benefits from an abilities-enhancing innovation or a technology that helps the individual overcome a disability, interview the person about the impact the technology has had on his or her life. Ask them questions about how the innovation works, how it has affected the way they live (the ways in which they play or work). Ask about how it has affected their family and friends. If possible, record the interview. Ask for permission to share with your classmates or to post online.

Speculate about Today's Innovations

Select a recent innovation - something recently in the news. Predict the impact that this innovation will have on individuals. Predict any societal impacts you can foresee. Label the impacts as positive or negative. Explain your reasons for the label.

 


Lesson Summary

Summary

Computing greatly affects the everyday lives of today's teens, but many of them are not consciously aware of these influences. In this lesson, students investigate the impact of the Internet on their lives.

Using a presentation about modern computers as an example, the teacher models the process of asking questions, organizing ideas, doing research, and giving a presentation.  Students will then work in assigned groups to create presentations on the Internet and its Impact using online collaboration tools.

Students will experience some of the many collaborative tools available online and develop effective group communication skills.

Outcomes

  • Students will describe multiple ways that the Internet impacts our lives.
  • Students will use good research techniques to find and cite high-quality sources and to synthesize an original understanding of topics researched online.
  • Students will define basic vocabulary about the Internet (cloud, server, etc.).
  • Students will describe various tools that enable online collaboration.
  • Students will collaborate using online tools to develop and refine a presentation.
  • Students will collaborate and access information with speed and precision using computational tools.

Overview

  1. Getting Started (5 min) – Students Think-Pair-Share about the size and scope of the Internet.
  2. Teacher Overview (20 min) – Teachers present overview of the internet and introduce “pecha kuchas.”
  3. Group Activity (30 min) – Student work in groups to organize ideas for research on a particular topic using mind maps.
  4. Group Activity (65 min) – Students research their topic in groups and create “half pecha kuchas” to present to the class.
  5. Presentations (20 min) – Each group presents their pecha kucha in the 3.5 min format.
  6. Wrap Up (10 min) – Students discuss what they learned or observed from watching other groups’ presentations.

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Creativity
  • EU 1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
    • LO 1.2.3 - Create a new computational artifact by combining or modifying existing artifacts. [P2]
      • EK 1.2.3A - Creating computational artifacts can be done by combining and modifying existing artifacts or by creating new artifacts.
      • EK 1.2.3B - Computation facilitates the creation and modification of computational artifacts with enhanced detail and precision.
      • EK 1.2.3C - Combining or modifying existing artifacts can show personal expression of ideas.
    • LO 1.2.4 - Collaborate in the creation of computational artifacts. [P6]
      • EK 1.2.4A - A collaboratively created computational artifact reflects effort by more than one person.
      • EK 1.2.4B - Effective collaborative teams consider the use of online collaborative tools.
      • EK 1.2.4C - Effective collaborative teams practice interpersonal communication, consensus building, conflict resolution, and negotiation.
      • EK 1.2.4D - Effective collaboration strategies enhance performance.
      • EK 1.2.4F - A collaboratively created computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas.
Big Idea - Impact
  • EU 7.1 - Computing enhances communication, interaction, and cognition.
    • LO 7.1.1 - Explain how computing innovations affect communication, interaction, and cognition. [P4]
      • EK 7.1.1A - Email, SMS, and chat have fostered new ways to communicate and collaborate.
      • EK 7.1.1B - Video conferencing and video chat have fostered new ways to communicate and collaborate.
      • EK 7.1.1M - The Internet and the Web have enhanced methods of and opportunities for communication and collaboration.
      • EK 7.1.1N - The Internet and the Web have changed many areas, including e-commerce, health care, access to information and entertainment, and online learning.
      • EK 7.1.1O - The Internet and the Web have impacted productivity, positively and negatively, in many areas.
    • LO 7.1.2 - Explain how people participate in a problemsolving process that scales. [P4]
      • EK 7.1.2D - Human capabilities are enhanced by digitally enabled collaboration.
  • EU 7.3 - Computing has global effects — both beneficial and harmful — on people and society.
    • LO 7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
      • EK 7.3.1G - Privacy and security concerns arise in the development and use of computational systems and artifacts.
  • EU 7.5 - An investigative process is aided by effective organization and selection of resources. Appropriate technologies and tools facilitate the accessing of information and enable the ability to evaluate the credibility of sources.
    • LO 7.5.2 - Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility. [P5]
      • EK 7.5.2B - Information from a source is considered relevant when it supports an appropriate claim or the purpose of the investigation.

NGSS Practices:

  • 3. Planning and carrying out investigations
  • 7. Engaging in argument from evidence
  • 8. Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information

NGSS Content:

  • HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.
  • HS-ETS1-3. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

Key Concepts

Students should understand more about what the Internet is, what a computer is, and how the Internet affects our daily lives.

Students should develop an improved understanding of the power of the Internet as a positive agent of change.

Students should use collaborative online tools to work in effective groups using good research skills to deliver a worthwhile presentation.

Students describe ways that greater speed, detail and precision in processing information is possible because of computation.


Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: required

Teacher Resources

  1. Unit 1 Lesson 2 LIGHT.pptx (overview of the lesson)
  2. Modern Computerx.pptx (example of a short pecha kucha)
  3. Script for Modern computers.docx
  4. Bad presentation for contrast.pptx (example of how NOT to create a presentation)
  5. Script for bad presentation.docx
  6. Research and Collaboration Assessment.docx
  7. Pecha Kucha student handout.docx
  8. Pecha Kucha Assessment.docx

Student Resources:

  1. Access to computers for using online collaboration resources.

Crowdsourcing Resources:

 

Lesson Plan

Session 1

Getting Started (5 min)

Journal 

Instruct students to think about the following questions and journal about their thoughts. Afterwards, have them pair up and share their answers with each other. (See slide 2 of the presentation in the lesson folder: "Unit 1 lesson 2 LIGHT".)

  • How big is the Internet?
  • What kind of information is on the Internet?
  • What kinds of communication does the Internet make possible?

Teacher Overview and Student Activity Introduction (20 minutes)

(Use the Unit 1 Lesson 2 LIGHT presentation for this activity.)

Part 1 - Teacher Presentation and discussion (10 min) 

  1. Use slides 3-4, and the students' ideas from the journaling exercises, to guide a class discussion on the Internet: what is out there and how does it affect our lives?
    • Try to get an idea of how much students know about what is on the Internet beyond email and social media.
    • If students need more idea starters, show the presentations on Communication Changes or Business Changes in the teacher folder.
    • Encourage students to continue to write down the things they know or could look up.
    • Suggestion for follow-up activity: Have students create "memes" and try to spread them through social networking to see the power of communication and collaboration.
  2. Slides 5-7: Introduce the question of what a computer is. Then, using the script in the teacher folder, deliver the pecha kucha presentation on Modern Computers. Finally, discuss with the students what their assignment will be and give them some tips for creating their own presentation.                          
  3. Notes for teachers on presentation: 
    • "Pecha kucha" was originally used to refer to a specific talk format that contains 20 presentation slides, each of which are presented for exactly 20 seconds, using an auto-advance timer.  The goal is to create a tight, effective presentation that moves quickly and conveys a lot of information in a short period of time.
    • For this exercise, you will be demonstrating a "half pecha kucha" that includes 10 slides -- presented at 20 seconds a slide, the presentation will last for 200 seconds (just over 3 minutes).
    • You will need to practice this presentation ahead of time, especially if you are not familiar with the "pecha kucha" format!   

Part 2 - Introducing Student Activity (10 min)

  1. In the remainder of the lesson, student groups will create their own "half pecha kuchas" on a topic about the Internet that they select.
  2. Ask students what they learned:
    • About the content: modern computers.
    • About delivering a pecha kucha presentation: you need a script; you need to practice; it's automatically timed; you don't read from the screen.
  3. Slides 8-10: Tell students they will be working for the next few days to create presentations about the Internet. Encourage some brainstorming of good questions to ask and write them down.  (Slides 9-10 illustrate how this was done for the Modern Computer pecha kucha. Slide 11 includes some tips on doing good research. Lastly, slide 12 introduces the criteria that will be used to assess the presentation.)
  • As you are doing this, give students the "Pecha Kucha Student Handout."
  • Have students consider what online collaborative platforms are available to them to create a product together (Office 365, Google Drive, etc.)
  • Note: If your students need more clarification on making a good presentation, you may want to deliver the "bad presentation for contrast" presentation (in the lesson folder, along with corresponding scripts) and have them describe why the presentation is bad.

 

Group Activity: Collaboration and Organizing Ideas (30 minutes)

(See Research and Collaboration Assessment Rubric.) Since this is the first significant collaborative activity of the course, discuss team dynamics and norms, communication skills and conflict resolution, in addition to an overview of what online collaborative tools can be used.

Assign students to investigate and use online collaboration tools to:

  • Collect the best questions on what they will research (Google docs, Office 365, etc.).
  • Create a mind map to organize the questions. MindMup is recommended for creating the mind maps because it requires no signup. A list of tools is available here: http://elearningindustry.com/the-5-best-free-mind-mapping-tools-for-teachers
  • Collect images and links to research on platforms like Pinterest, Google drive, or links in a document. (There are many other options.)

Session 2 - 3

Group Activity: Research and Presentation Preparation (65 minutes)

Part 1 - Preliminary research and collaborative development of pecha kuchas on the impact of the Internet (20 min)

Part 2 - Preliminary presentations/sharing and feedback (10 min)

Part 3 - Research and collaborative development of complete pecha kucha presentations on the impact of the Internet (35 min and homework / out-of-class time as desired)

Class Activity: Presentation of Research (20 min)

(See the self and group assessments and "Pecha Kucha Student Handout" in the lesson folder.)

  • The timing for this session assumes that there are 4-5 group presentations, each in the pecha kucha 3.5-minute format.  
  • Every student should present some of the slides; the assessment includes both individual and group components.
  • Give feedback and get comments about the advantages of working as a team, highlight teams that demonstrate good teamwork skills. 

 

Wrap up (10 min)

Share Student Learning

  • Review knowledge gained from student presentations about facts learned, the research process, collaboration, and presentation skills.
  • Ask how each student was able to reflect their own, personal ideas as part of a collaborative group.
  • Discuss how computation facilitates the creation and modification of computational artifacts with enhanced detail and precision.


Options for Differentiated Instruction

  • Suggestion: Have students create memes and try to spread them through social networking to see the power of communication and collaboration.

Evidence of Learning

Formative Assessment

Teachers are encouraged to have students present single slides and give each other feedback before continuing to do the research for the complete presentations.

 

Students are working in collaborative teams for the first time, use reflections and dialog to assess how effectively they are using online tools to collaborate and how they are resolving issues working as a team.


Summative Assessment

Students create a presentation while working in groups and using online collaboration tools. A rubric will be used to assess the student group presentations along with self-reflections. 

Lesson Summary

Pre-lesson preparation

For better comprehension of the lesson, students should have ideally had experiences or have read about issues that have demonstrated how computing can be misused. This does not require assigned reading or review (just encourage them to watch the news and notice what is happening in the world), but you could have them bring in a current event article and summary of the event for homework as additional preparation.

Summary

Students will read about and discuss the issues that arise from the misuse of technology. Over the two sessions, students will assess their current uses of computers for communication.  In the second session, they will narrow their focus to address as a class social media, online retail and banking, cloud data storage, and government surveillance.

Outcomes

 

  • Students will understand the consequences of Internet usage on personal privacy and security.
  • Students will become aware of technologies designed to track their Internet usage.
  • Students will understand the benefits and drawbacks of street cameras and facial recognition software.
  • Students will understand both sides of the argument about government surveillance of electronic communications.

 

Overview

Session 1

 

  • Getting Started (5 min) – Journal about current uses of online communication.
  • Activity (40 min) – Working in pairs students review a list of 10 Commandments of Computer Ethics and develop a revised version.
  • Wrap up (5 min) – Combine partners into groups of four and assign to each group one of the following topics to be researched tomorrow.
  • Social media (+ connecting at a distance, - cyberbullying)
  • Online retail, banking, and businesses (+ convenience, - identity theft)
  • Cloud data storage (+ information sharing, - loss of privacy)
  • Government surveillance (+ find terrorist threats, - loss of privacy)
  • Begin researching  the assigned topic.

 

 

Session 2

 

  • Getting Started (5 min) - Journal on assigned topic
  • Activity (10 min) -Research groups
  • Activity (30 min) - Regroup and share information gathered
  • Wrap up (5 min) - Select one topic to explore further

 

 

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Creativity
  • EU 1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
    • LO 1.2.4 - Collaborate in the creation of computational artifacts. [P6]
      • EK 1.2.4A - A collaboratively created computational artifact reflects effort by more than one person.
Big Idea - Data
  • EU 3.1 - People use computer programs to process information to gain insight and knowledge.
    • LO 3.1.1 - Find patterns and test hypotheses about digitally processed information to gain insight and knowledge. [P4]
      • EK 3.1.1A - Computers are used in an iterative and interactive way when processing digital information to gain insight and knowledge.
  • EU 3.2 - Computing facilitates exploration and the discovery of connections in information.
    • LO 3.2.2 - . Determine how large data sets impact the use of computational processes to discover information and knowledge. [P3]
      • EK 3.2.2B - The storing, processing, and curating of large data sets is challenging.
      • EK 3.2.2D - Maintaining privacy of large data sets containing personal information can be challenging.
      • EK 3.2.2G - The effective use of large data sets requires computational solutions.
Big Idea - Internet
  • EU 6.1 - The Internet is a network of autonomous systems.
    • LO 6.1.1 - Explain the abstractions in the Internet and how the Internet functions. [P3]
      • EK 6.1.1A - The Internet connects devices and networks all over the world.
  • EU 6.3 - Cybersecurity is an important concern for the Internet and the systems built on it.
    • LO 6.3.1 - Identify existing cybersecurity concerns and potential options to address these issues with the Internet and the systems built on it. [P1]
Big Idea - Impact
  • EU 7.1 - Computing enhances communication, interaction, and cognition.
    • LO 7.1.1 - Explain how computing innovations affect communication, interaction, and cognition. [P4]
      • EK 7.1.1C - Social media continues to evolve and fosters new ways to communicate.
      • EK 7.1.1D - Cloud computing fosters new ways to communicate and collaborate.
      • EK 7.1.1H - Social media, such as blogs and Twitter, have enhanced dissemination.
      • EK 7.1.1M - The Internet and the Web have enhanced methods of and opportunities for communication and collaboration.
      • EK 7.1.1N - The Internet and the Web have changed many areas, including e-commerce, health care, access to information and entertainment, and online learning.
      • EK 7.1.1O - The Internet and the Web have impacted productivity, positively and negatively, in many areas.
  • EU 7.2 - Computing enables innovation in nearly every field.
    • LO 7.2.1 - Explain how computing has impacted innovations in other fields. [P1]
      • EK 7.2.1C - Computing enables innovation by providing the ability to access and share information.
      • EK 7.2.1G - Advances in computing as an enabling technology have generated and increased the creativity in other fields.
  • EU 7.3 - Computing has global effects — both beneficial and harmful — on people and society.
    • LO 7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
      • EK 7.3.1A - Innovations enabled by computing raise legal and ethical concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1D - Both authenticated and anonymous access to digital information raise legal and ethical concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1E - Commercial and governmental censorship of digital information raise legal and ethical concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1G - Privacy and security concerns arise in the development and use of computational systems and artifacts.
      • EK 7.3.1H - Aggregation of information, such as geolocation, cookies, and browsing history, raises privacy and security concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1I - Anonymity in online interactions can be enabled through the use of online anonymity software and proxy servers.
      • EK 7.3.1J - Technology enables the collection, use, and exploitation of information about, by, and for individuals, groups, and institutions.
      • EK 7.3.1L - Commercial and governmental curation of information may be exploited if privacy and other protections are ignored.
  • EU 7.4 - Computing innovations influence and are influenced by the economic, social, and cultural contexts in which they are designed and used.
    • LO 7.4.1 - Explain the connections between computing and real-world contexts, including economic, social, and cultural contexts. [P1]

Essential Questions

  • What are some potential beneficial and harmful effects of computing?
  • How do economic, social, and cultural contexts influence innovation and the use of computing?

Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: required

These materials may be useful if you want to spend some time with the entire group discussing a few key topics.

Lesson Plan

Session 1

Getting Started (5 min) - Journal

The purpose of this session is to make students think about the different ways in which they as individuals use computers and the Internet to communicate.

Guided Activity (40 min)

For this activity, teachers will use partners.  If an odd number of students then a group of three may be used.

 

  • Students work in pairs to examine Wikipedia article, “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments_of_Computer_Ethics) and identify and share the two commandments they think are the most commonly violated.
  • Students read commandments and individually identify the two they think are most frequently violated.
  • Students share the two commandments they identified with partners and discuss why they choose the commandments they did.
  • Pairs select two they think are the most significantly violated.  Collect the responses from the class.

 

As a class suggest revision to the 10 Commandments of Computer Ethics.

 

  • Divide the class into four groups. Each topic group will work together to explore resources and prepare to share with the other groups tomorrow.
  • Groups use the worksheet (ExploringInnovationsWorksheet.docx) to identify and record
  • potential impacts of the technology,
  • whether they primarily affect individuals or society as a whole, whether they are positive or negative,
  • evidence of that impact
  • the source they used to find the information.  

 

(Each student in the group should make their own copy of the worksheet, so they can bring them back to their original jigsaw groups.)

After completing the worksheet, students should complete the Venn diagram (ExploringInnovationVenn.docx) to summarize key impacts of an innovation.

The topics (and examples of positive (+) and negative (-) impacts) include:

 

  • Social media (+ connecting at a distance, - cyberbullying)
  • Online retail, banking, and businesses (+ convenience, - identity theft)
  • Cloud data storage (+ information sharing, - loss of privacy)
  • Government surveillance (+ find terrorist threats, - loss of privacy)

 

For each of the above topics, there is a resource sheet in the lesson folder that can be provided to student groups. (Optionally, you may want to create additional resource sheets, or let students select other topics and find their own resources.)

Wrap Up (5 min)

Each group should discuss its progress this far in researching their topic.  Students will have 10 minutes tomorrow to prepare to make a presentation to the resto of the class.

Session 2

Getting Started (5 min)

Students should take a few minutes to journal about the following prompt:

 

  • Think about your typical day. How often do you think that your image has been captured by a surveillance camera? List all of the places where your image may have been captured.  Also, consider what you have done in the past week. What data might have been collected about you somewhere over the past week?

 

Guided Activity (10 min)

Topic Groups: Have students briefly assemble into topic groups to compare notes.

Guided Activity (30 min)

 

  • Jigsaw Groups: Have students assemble into their original jigsaw groups. Each member will present the information on the topic that was researched. All notes need to be shared within these groups.
  • You may regroup and discuss the topics as a class if time permits.

 

Wrap Up (5 min)

Each student should select a topic that they would like to explore further and write the topic in their journal. It might be a narrow subtopic from the broader topics that were explored within this lesson. They might also want to write down a few interesting innovations connected to a topic. They will refer back to this during the practice performance lesson later in the unit.

Session 1

Getting Started (5 min) - Journal

The purpose of this session is to make students think about the different ways in which they as individuals, and society as a whole, are more vulnerable because of new technologies.

Students should consider the following question and record their reflections in their journals:

  • With the invention of new technologies, what additional risks do we face (personally and societally)?

Guided Activity (40 min)

For this activity, teachers will use "Jigsaw Groups":

  1. Create student groups with 4 students per group. Each student will select one topic (innovation or aspect of technology).
  2. Redistribute class groups by topic. Each topic group will work together to explore resources and take notes during the 40-minute time block.
    • Groups should use the worksheet (ExploringInnovationsWorksheet.docx) to identify and record potential impacts of the technology, whether they primarily affect individuals or society as a whole, whether they are positive or negative, evidence of that impact, and the source they used to find the information.  (Each student in the group should make their own copy of the worksheet, so they can bring them back to their original jigsaw groups.)
    • After completing the worksheet, students should complete the Venn diagram (ExploringInnovationVenn.docx) to summarize the key impacts of an innovation, and who is affected.
  3. The students in the topic groups will report back to their original group of 4 students in session 2, thus completing the "jigsaw."

The topics (and examples of positive (+) and negative (-) impacts) include:

  • Social media (+ connecting at a distance, - cyberbullying)
  • Online retail, banking, and businesses (+ convenience, - identity theft)
  • Cloud data storage (+ information sharing, - loss of privacy)
  • Government surveillance (+ find terrorist threats, - loss of privacy)

For each of the above topics, there is a resource sheet in the lesson folder that can be provided to student groups. (Optionally, you may want to create additional resource sheets, or let students select other topics and find their own resources.)

Wrap Up (5 min)

As a class, review each of the larger topic areas and remind students that they will be sharing information in their original groups the next day. If students need too much additional time to research the topic, you may consider assigning them to complete the research independently for homework.

Session 2

Getting Started (5 min)

Students should take a few minutes to journal about the following prompt:

  • Think about your typical day. How often do you think that your image has been captured by a surveillance camera? List all of the places where your image may have been captured.  Also, consider what you have done in the past week. What data might have been collected about you somewhere over the past week?

Guided Activity (10 min)

Topic Groups: Have students briefly assemble into topic groups to compare notes.

Guided Activity (30 min)

  • Jigsaw Groups: Have students assemble into their original jigsaw groups. Each member will present the information on the topic that was researched. All notes need to be shared within these groups.
  • You may regroup and discuss the topics as a class if time permits.

Wrap Up (5 min)

Each student should select a topic that they would like to explore further and write the topic in their journal. It might be a narrow subtopic from the broader topics that were explored within this lesson. They might also want to write down a few interesting innovations connected to a topic. They will refer back to this during the practice performance lesson later in the unit.


Lesson Summary

Summary

A bit is a single unit of information. Bits are the fundamental building blocks of digital computing.  There are many different ways to represent a single bit physically, and collections of bits can be combined to represent everything from numbers, to electronic books, to control programs for interstellar probes. In this lesson, students will learn how bits are stored and how they can be used to represent information. Students will further explore how numbers can be represented in binary form, how to convert numbers between these different forms, and how they are used by different applications.

Outcomes

  • Understand the abstraction of a "bit" and how bits can be used to represent different kinds of information.
  • Be able to convert numbers between decimal, binary, and hexadecimal forms.
  • Be able to identify formats used to represent numbers, pictures, audio, and video data.
  • Understand how these forms of bit representation are used in modern technology.

Overview

Session One

  1. Getting Started (5 min) - Jacquard loom
  2. Guided Activity (10 min) - Light bulb abstraction of bits
  3. Interactive Teacher Presentation (25 min) - "It's Just Bits"
  4. Wrap Up (10 min) - Binary conversions worksheet

Session Two 

  1. Getting Started (5 min) - Journal and completing worksheet
  2. Guided Activity (20 min) - Conversions (two options: Binary Game or hexadecimal conversions)
  3. Real-World Connections (20 min)
  4. Wrap-up (5 min) - Journal

Optional Activities

  • Homework - Generate conversion worksheets using http://www.worksheetworks.com/math/numbers/systems.html 
  • (30 min) Web-quest to explore different ways of physically representing bits.
  • Four research activities on:
    • Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace
    • Hollerith's Tabulation Machine
    • Qbits
    • Weaving with the Jacquard Loom

Source

Parts of this lesson were adapted from code.org.

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Abstraction
  • EU 2.1 - A variety of abstractions built on binary sequences can be used to represent all digital data.
    • LO 2.1.1 - Describe the variety of abstractions used to represent data. [P3]
      • EK 2.1.1A - Digital data is represented by abstractions at different levels.
      • EK 2.1.1B - At the lowest level, all digital data are represented by bits.
      • EK 2.1.1C - At a higher level, bits are grouped to represent abstractions, including but not limited to numbers, characters, and color.
      • EK 2.1.1D - Number bases, including binary, decimal, and hexadecimal, are used to represent and investigate digital data.
      • EK 2.1.1E - At one of the lowest levels of abstraction, digital data is represented in binary (base 2) using only combinations of the digits zero and one.
      • EK 2.1.1F - Hexadecimal (base 16) is used to represent digital data because hexadecimal representation uses fewer digits than binary.
    • LO 2.1.2 - Explain how binary sequences are used to represent digital data. [P5]
Big Idea - Algorithms
  • EU 4.1 - Algorithms are precise sequences of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer and are implemented using programming languages.
    • LO 4.1.1 - Develop an algorithm for implementation in a program. [P2]
Big Idea - Programming
  • EU 5.5 - Programming uses mathematical and logical concepts.
    • LO 5.5.1 - Employ appropriate mathematical and logical concepts in programming. [P1]
      • EK 5.5.1A - Numbers and numerical concepts are fundamental to programming.
      • EK 5.5.1B - Integers may be constrained in the maximum and minimum values that can be represented in a program because of storage limitations.
      • EK 5.5.1C - Real numbers are approximated by floating-point representations that do not necessarily have infinite precision.

Math Common Core Practice:

  • MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  • MP4: Model with mathematics.
  • MP8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Common Core Math:

  • N-Q.1-3: Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems

Common Core ELA:

  • RST 12.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
  • RST 12.2 - Determine central ideas and conclusions in the text
  • RST 12.3 - Precisely follow a complex multistep procedure
  • RST 12.4 - Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases
  • RST 12.7 - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media
  • RST 12.10 - Read and comprehend science/technical texts
  • WHST 12.1 - Write arguments on discipline specific content
  • WHST 12.2 - Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes
  • WHST 12.8 - Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source
  • WHST 12.9 - Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research

NGSS Practices:

  • 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

Key Concepts

The students will...

  • Understand the abstraction of a "bit" and how bits can be used to represent different kinds of information.
  • Be able to convert numbers between decimal, binary, and (optionally) hexadecimal forms.
  • Be able to identify formats used to represent numbers, pictures, audio, and video data.
  • Understand how these forms of bit representation are used in modern technology.

Essential Questions

  • How can computing and the use of computational tools foster creative expression?
  • How are vastly different kinds of data, physical phenomena, and mathematical concepts represented on a computer?
  • How can computational models and simulations help generate new understanding and knowledge?
  • How are number values converted across decimal, binary, and hexadecimal representations?
  • How are digital colors represented with hexadecimal codes?
  • What is the algorithm to convert a number to or from hexadecimal with another number system?

Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: required

For the Student

  • Journal
  • Option: Access to a web browser with Flash to play the Binary Game: http://www.crazygames.com/game/binary-game
  • Option: Access to a web browser and collaborative file creation/sharing site, such as Google Documents, to complete a web quest 

For the Teacher

In the Lesson Resources folder:

  • Presentation: JustBits
  • BinaryConversionWorksheet
    • Give these directions to students during the lesson
  • AdditionalResource_bin2dec
  • AdditionalResource_BinaryWorksheet
  • AdditionalResource_binmagic
  • For Lecture:
    • HexBinaryExamples
    • HexDecimalExamples
  • Hexadecimal worksheets:
    • Worksheet: HexConversionsWorksheet
    • Homework: HexConversionsHomework
  • Answer Keys:
    • HexConversionsWorksheetKEY
    • HexConversionsHomeworkKEY

Available on the Web for Teachers:

Lesson Plan

Session One

Getting Started (5 min)

Jacquard loom: early computer programming

The teacher will introduce the "Jacquard Loom," an early machine that made use of punch cards to make complicated textiles.

  • View the video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwozgRPLVC8 (2:35) Summary: Developed in 1801 by Joseph Jacquard--this loom used punch cards to structure a series of operations. This loom is considered to be an important to the development toward computer programing.
  • If you have punch cards, pass them around while students are watching the video.

Guided Activity (10 min)

Represent Values as a Light Switch

  1. Instruct students to answer these questions with an elbow partner:
    • Using a single light switch, how can you represent the value 0? 1?
    • If you have two light switches (connected to two different lights in the same room), how many values can you represent? Describe how you would represent each value (numbers, symbols, etc.).
  2. Invite students to share their ideas with the class.
  3. Engage the entire class with the following questions. Show the various combinations.
    • If I add a third switch, how many values can I represent?
    • How many values can I represent with four switches? Do you notice a pattern?
    • What is the minimum/maximum values that can be represented with a fixed number of switches? Make the connection: when the computer stores values as on/off switches it can store a range depending on the number of bits (light switches) from all off (0's) to all on (1's)

Teaching Tip: Guiding the students toward understanding that the number of switches determines how many numbers can be represented. The pattern is 1 switch = 2 (or 21) numbers, 2 switches = 4 (or 22), 3 switches = 8 (or 23), etc.

Interactive Teacher Presentation (25 min)

Use the "JustBits" presentation in the lesson folder to explore different ways to represent bits, and different ways in which bits can be used to store different kinds of information.

General Presenting Tips:

  • Throughout the presentation, the slides have questions on them that the students should be thinking about. Try to ensure that students are actively considering these questions and that they understand how to answer them before moving on.  
  • You may wish to call on students randomly, have everyone write down an answer, or have students suggest different answers that you write on the board and then have the class work on.  (Note: Incorrect answers are a great opportunity to diagnose and remedy conceptual errors. Remember, there are no "bad answers," just ones that reveal different levels of understanding.)

Presentation Guide:

  • As you go through the slides, discuss how the different uses of bits relates to the representation of bits. Eight bits can be interpreted in many ways:  as an unsigned integer from 0 to 255, as a signed integer from -127 to 128, as a single ASCII character, or as a red, green, or blue color value associated with a pixel in a screen display.
  • Emphasize to the students that a "bit" is just an abstraction. It refers to the value of a single piece of information stored in an "on/off", "zero/one", or "yes/no" format.  Similarly, any given interpretation a collection of bits as information is an abstraction that lets us move from "a bunch of bits" to "data and information."  
  • Slide 5 (Storing Bits): If you are planning to do the optional web quest to explore different bit representations, you could encourage students to think about different ways that bit could be stored, to get them thinking about that question.
  • Slide 11 (Conversions): This is a fairly quick introduction to binary/decimal conversions.  You may wish to spend some time at the board working through more examples.  Students will have an opportunity later in the class to use the "Binary Game" (or optionally paper worksheets) to practice binary/decimal conversion.
  • Slide 12 (Hexadecimal): For hexadecimal number conversions, you may wish to spend a bit of extra time on this slide to make sure they understand the concept more clearly.
  • Practice Problems, Slide 18: Give the students a few minutes to start working on the first problem, then lead the class in a brief discussion to make sure they’re approaching it correctly.
    • They should be multiplying the number of pixels (600 * 400 = 240,000) by the number of bytes (3 bytes in a pixel) by the number of bits in a bite (8 bits in a byte).
    • The total number of bits = (240,000 * 3 * 8) = 5,760,000 bits.
    • CD answer: 44,100 samples/second * 16 bits/sample = 705,600 bits/second.
    • One 3-minute song = 705,600 bits/second * 60 seconds/minute * 3 = 127,008,000 bits. 
  • Slide 19: Represent data and instructions in binary. Possible answers could use 4 bits per number and 2 bits per operator such as ( 00 for +, 01 for -, 10 for *, 11 for /) as follows: 
    • 9 + 4 as 1001 00 0100

    • 11 – 3 as 1101 01 0011

    • 2 * 5 as 0010 10 0101

    • 15 / 5 as 1111 11 0101

 

Wrap Up (10 min)

Converting between decimal and binary

Use the "BinaryConversionWorksheet" in the lesson folder (from Code.org) to let students explore (individually or in pairs/small groups) how to build an algorithm for converting binary to decimal. As you progress through the activity, answer questions as they arise, or ask students to explain how they arrived at the answer to check for understanding.

Other extensions and activities that may be useful:

  • List the numbers from 0 to 15. Show students how they are represented in binary. Practice representing the grade level of various students in binary.
  • Show an algorithm for converting binary to decimal.
  • Show an algorithm for converting decimal to binary.
  • Convert an IP-V4 address from decimal to binary.

 

Session Two 

Getting Started (5 min)

Introduction

  • Have students describe what they know about representing numbers in binary code from the previous lesson (journal or discussion). (You may want to put a few conversion problems on the board as an entry check.)
  • Complete any remaining problems in the "Student Activity Guide: Converting Decimal to Binary."

Guided Activity: Conversions (20 min)

Option 1: 

Option 2:

  • If your students are comfortable with binary/decimal conversions, you could have them also master hexadecimal conversions.  (See "HexBinaryExample"s and "HexDecimalExamples" in the Lesson Resources folder for specific directions and suggested examples and/or the PowerPoint slides in the lesson folder.)
  • You may want to add additional examples or have students come to the board to show their work as you go through the different types of conversions.  (See the "HexConversionWorksheet" for distribution of those additional practice problems done during class.)

Extension: If you want to give your students more practice problems for in-class practice or homework, you can use the worksheet generator at http://www.worksheetworks.com/math/numbers/systems.html

Real World Connections (20 min)

How are text, colors and images saved in hexadecimal format? Select some of the following to present and discuss with the class.

  1. How is text converted to hexadecimal format?
    Ascii to Hexadecimal conversion chart
    Text to hexadecimal conversion tool - http://www.string-functions.com/hex-string.aspx

  2. Where are hexadecimal numbers used to represent digital data? Colors!
    Color Conversion Website: http://rapidtables.com/convert/color/index.htm

  3. How are picture files saved with hexadecimal format?
    http://www.colorcodepicker.com/

  4. Color Chart of 216 Web-safe Colors in hexadecimal form - http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_colors.asp
  5. Floating point numbers (decimals/fractions) are also represented in binary. Challenge students to think of how 2.5 would be written in binary (place values are in powers of 2, so to the right are 2-1 (one half), 2-2 (one quarter), 2-3 (one eighth) etc. So, 2.5 decimal = 10.1 binary ; 3.25 decimal = 11.01 binary; 4.75 decimal = 100.11 binary. See if they can figure out the pattern. Notice that 1/10 is impossible to represent accurately this way, causing any number of complications.

Wrap-Up (5 min)

Journal

Students should consider the following prompt, and record their thoughts in their journals:

  • Why is the abstract idea of an image stored in a jpeg file useful even though it hides important details about the actual file format?  When a user takes a digital photograph, they capture a digital image in their camera. Assuming the pictures are in the jpeg format, explain the difference between the abstract idea of an image and what is actually stored by the camera. 
  • Alternative question: Now that you have seen hexadecimal, what other number systems might be useful in computer science?  Give advantages and disadvantages of each. 

Optional Activities

Activity 1 - Collaborative Web-Quest (20 min)

Part 1 - Exploring Physical Bit Representations

  • Group students into small teams. Assign each team to research how computers represent bits with one of the following:
    • Punch cards
    • Magnetic polarity
    • Electrical voltage
    • Light intensity
  • Students can record their findings in a common file such as a Google doc, so that all students can edit and see the combined results of the research. Encourage students to create and/or add images that more completely illustrate what they have learned.

Teaching note: The research and writing activity in this lesson presents an opportunity to talk about copyright laws and emphasize that copied content must be credited to the rightful author or organization. 

Part 2 - Sharing the research

  • Allow students in each group to briefly share the most important details about what they learned about their assigned topics. If more than one group researched the same topic, they can report to the class as one team.
  • Encourage the class to ask questions.
  • Ask students if they know of any additional ways to represent bits.

Teaching note: Model writing skills through a variety of writing opportunities and prompts. Encourage students to write complete sentences that clearly communicate their ideas.

 

Activity 2 - Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace

  • Have each student research the machines designed and programmed by Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace. How did these machines represent bits? Investigate Babbage's and Lovelace's intellectual roles in creating their designs.
  • Communicate your learning in any effective format. Consider images, a collage, a recording, a screen play script, or a compare-and-contrast chart of the contributions to computer science of both Babbage and Lovelace.
  • Student should prepare to discuss their findings with the class.

Activity 3 - Hollerith's Tabulation Machine

  • Have each student research the machines that were designed by Herman Hollerith. How did these machines represent bits? What was the purpose of the machines? How did his device change history?
  • Predict how history might have been different if Hollerith hadn't created this device.
  • Student should prepare to discuss their findings with the class.

Activity 4 - Learn about Qbits

  • Have each student research "Qbit" and how it is used in quantum computing. Be particularly attentive to the vocabulary used to describe this technology. What implications does it have for the future of computing? Report your findings in any effective format.
  • Student should prepare to discuss their findings with the class.

Activity 5 - Weaving

  • Have each student create a small weaving project by following the directions shown in the video about the Jacquard loom:
  • Students respond to this prompt in their journals:
    • How did the invention of the Jacquard weaving loom change society? (consider technologically, economically, socially) Compare these changes to those brought by a recent innovation in computing technology. Be sure to speculate on the long-term impact and significance of these inventions.

Options for Differentiated Instruction

The Extension section above gives a variety of outside activities, some of which are appropriate for verbal and others for tactile learners.

  1. Instead of flashlights, the same task can be done with large cards that are black on one side and white on the other.
  2. If you have the space for a physical activity, have two (or more) teams (of 4 or 5 students each) line up.  
    • Each student represents a bit, with the student on one end being the bit in the 1's place, the next student representing the 2's place, the next the 4's place, etc.   
    • The students start in a standing position, which represents neither 1 nor 0. To represent a 1, the student's arms must be stretched straight overhead; to represent a 0, the student must squat down.  
    • You then call a number (one that can be represented using that many bits).  The two teams then race to get their team to represent that number. The first team to have it correct gets a point. They normalize (all stand with no arms up) and a new number is called.  
    • Ask them about patterns they find during the game.  (The 1's place student should notice that if the number is odd, their arms are up, but if the number is even, they are squatting.  The student representing the highest bit should notice that their arms are up if the number is larger than or equal to their place value.)

Note: If there are students in the class with physical limitations who are unable to stand, stretch, or squat, the game can be modified appropriately: 

  • Have the students play the game seated, with a card in their lap. (It represents neither a 1 nor a 0 when in their lap.) They will hold up a black side (to represent 0) or a white side (to represent 1) when a number is called.

 

Visual - Decimal, Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Number Systems Video -   http://whyu.org/whyUPlayer.php?currentchapter=3&currentbook=1&youtubeid=5sS7w-CMHkU

OR - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_oaBT-TndCs

Kinesthetic - Hexadecimal Drum Machine - http://www.mathsisfun.com/games/hex-drums.html 

Auditory - Hexadecimal File Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fyBf4Y2mVzs

Extension Activity 1. Students that have mastered the conversion techniques can peer-tutor students [one-on-one] that are having difficulty solving the conversions.

Extension Activity 2. Students can observe their computer’s network interface card (NIC) MAC address in hexadecimal, and convert the MAC address to binary and decimal. 

See algorithms of number system conversions:

      - http://www.schooltube.com/video/04a13760ada644a2a7d4/Bin2Dec2Hex%20-%20Lesson%203%20-%20Converting%20a%20hexadecimal%20number%20to%20binary

 

 

Alternative presentation for Gifted Students doing Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion:

For decimal number x:

  1. Get the highest power of 16 that is less than the decimal number x:

  2. 16n < x, (n=1,2,3,...)

  3. The high hex digit is equal to the integer if the decimal number x divided by the highest power of 16 that is smaller than x:

  4. dn = int(x / 16n)

  5. Calculate the difference Δ of the number x and the hex digit dn times the power of 16, 16n:

  6. Δ = x - dn × 16n

  7. Repeat step #1 with the difference result until the result is 0.

Example

Convert x=603 to hex:

n=2, 162=256 < 603

n=3, 163=4096 > 603

So

= 2

d2 = int(603 / 162) = 2

Δ = 603 - 2×162 = 91

= 1, x = Δ = 91

d1 = int(91 / 161) = 5

Δ = 91 - 5×161 = 11

= 0, x = Δ = 11

d0 = int(11 / 160) = 1110 = B16

Δ = 11 - 11×160 = 0

(d2d1d0)  = 25B

Answer: x = 60310 = 25B16

 

Learn to Count in Binary and Hexadecimal - http://webelfin.com/webelfindesign/counthex.html

 

ADDITIONAL/ALTERNATE FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT MATERIAL or Class Activity if time permits - from unplugged.com

http://csunplugged.org/binary-numbers

Brainstorm reasons for storing and communicating secret messages.  Challenge students to think of both helpful and problematic reasons.  Students record at least two of each.

View steganography presentation.  Presentations are available on YouTube.


Evidence of Learning

Formative Assessment

Assessment Questions:

  • Describe the pattern for even and odd numbers that you see in the binary number system. Speculate on why this pattern exists.
  • Why is the binary number system used in computers?
  • Why is the Jacquard loom important in the history of computing?
  • How are bits represented in punch cards?
  • How are bits represented magnetically?
  • How are bits represented with voltage?
  • How are bits represented with light?
  • Are students correctly answering questions in the Getting Started activity: Represent values with a light switch? On the Student Activity Guide: Converting Decimal to Binary?
  • Decimal, binary, and hexadecimal value conversions:
    • Write the step-by-step process needed for the following number conversions:
      • hexadecimal to binary
      • binary to hexadecimal
      • hexadecimal to decimal
      • decimal to hexadecimal
    • Assign a sequence of consecutive hexadecimal numbers - one to each person.  After they have converted them to decimal and to binary, have them compare to find patterns in their answers.
    • Distribute worksheets so all students practice conversions of all types.  See "BinaryConversionWorksheet" and "HexConversionWorksheet"

Summative Assessment

Journal check - questions presented as described in the lesson plan

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

  • Why is the binary number system used in computers?
  • Describe the pattern you observe for even and odd numbers in binary. Why do you think this pattern emerges?
  • What other patterns do you see in binary numbers?
  • Convert the ages of your family members to binary. How many bits are needed to express the ages?
  • Describe an algorithm for converting decimal numbers to binary.
  • Describe an algorithm for converting binary numbers to decimal.

Getting Started section: questions on converting between bases and describing the purpose of hexadecimal numbers.

Lesson Summary

Summary

Computing innovations have the potential to significantly impact our lives, both positively and negatively.  In order to understand the full range of impact (or lack of impact) of a given innovation, one must consider how differences in geographic location, culture, and socioeconomic status influence the effect that given innovation has on a specific group of people.  Students learn about the digital divide on national and global levels and analyze how three different computing innovations impact people, making ethical considerations while doing so in order to determine if the impact is beneficial or harmful. 

Outcomes

Students will:

  • Discuss the ethical concerns that arise from a given computing innovation.
  • Describe the ways in which the digital divide affects individuals and groups of people.
  • Analyze the impact of a given computing innovation with respect to a specific group of people and categorizing the impact as beneficial or harmful.

Overview

  1. Getting Started (5 min)
  2. Guided Presentation (20 min)
  3. Independent Analysis (20 min)
  4. Wrap-up (5 min)

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Impact
  • EU 7.1 - Computing enhances communication, interaction, and cognition.
    • LO 7.1.2 - Explain how people participate in a problemsolving process that scales. [P4]
      • EK 7.1.2G - The move from desktop computers to a proliferation of always-on mobile computers is leading to new applications.
  • EU 7.2 - Computing enables innovation in nearly every field.
    • LO 7.2.1 - Explain how computing has impacted innovations in other fields. [P1]
      • EK 7.2.1A - Machine learning and data mining have enabled innovation in medicine, business, and science.
      • EK 7.2.1D - Open access and Creative Commons have enabled broad access to digital information.
      • EK 7.2.1G - Advances in computing as an enabling technology have generated and increased the creativity in other fields.
  • EU 7.3 - Computing has global effects — both beneficial and harmful — on people and society.
    • LO 7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
      • EK 7.3.1A - Innovations enabled by computing raise legal and ethical concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1B - Commercial access to music and movie downloads and streaming raises legal and ethical concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1C - Access to digital content via peer-to-peer networks raises legal and ethical concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1F - Open source and licensing of software and content raise legal and ethical concerns.
      • EK 7.3.1P - The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) has been a benefit and a challenge in making copyrighted digital material widely available.
  • EU 7.4 - Computing innovations influence and are influenced by the economic, social, and cultural contexts in which they are designed and used.
    • LO 7.4.1 - Explain the connections between computing and real-world contexts, including economic, social, and cultural contexts. [P1]
      • EK 7.4.1A - The innovation and impact of social media and online access varies in different countries and in different socioeconomic groups.
      • EK 7.4.1B - Mobile, wireless, and networked computing have an impact on innovation throughout the world.
      • EK 7.4.1C - The global distribution of computing resources raises issues of equity, access, and power.
      • EK 7.4.1D - Groups and individuals are affected by the "digital divide" - differing access to computing and the Internet based on socioeconomic or geographic characteristics.
      • EK 7.4.1E - Networks and infrastructure are supported by both commercial and governmental initiatives.

Math Common Core Practice:

  • MP3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Common Core ELA:

  • RST 12.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
  • RST 12.2 - Determine central ideas and conclusions in the text
  • RST 12.6 - Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure
  • WHST 12.1 - Write arguments on discipline specific content
  • WHST 12.4 - Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience

NGSS Practices:

  • 1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
  • 7. Engaging in argument from evidence

Key Concepts

  • Innovations have positive and negative impacts.
  • The digital divide can significantly influence the impact and utility of a given innovation for different groups of people.
  • The movement towards Open Access and open-source software is decreasing the width of the "digital divide."
  • In order to understand the impact of a given innovation, it is necessary to consider if and how the innovation affects different groups of people in the world and whether that impact is beneficial or harmful to that group.

Essential Questions

  • What are some potential beneficial and harmful effects of computing?
  • How do economic, social, and cultural contexts influence innovation and the use of computing?

Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: optional

For the Student

For the Teacher

In the Lesson Resources folder:

  • Presentation (Lesson1_5)
  • Analyzing Impacts of Digital Innovations Worksheet (Lesson1_5wkst)
  • Homework (Lesson1_5hw)

Lesson Plan

Getting Started (5 min)

Present "Lesson1_5" PowerPoint slides (in Lesson Resources folder).

  • Slide 2: Students will respond to the following prompt in their journals:  List three questions you could ask to decide if an innovation is "ethical".
  • When the students finish, have them discuss their answers.  (Possible answers: does it cause physical, emotional, cultural, environmental, economic or social harm?)

Guided Presentation (20 min)

Analyzing the Ethics of an Innovation (Slides 3 – 10) :

  • Slide 3: Show students the definition of “ethics”.
  • Slide 4: Have students vote as to whether or not “ethical” and “legal” are the same. This is especially relevant with respect to innovations because laws cannot be made about a specific technology before it exists.  I.e. laws governing the use of a specific technology must be made after its emergence. 
  • Slide 5: Present the necessary considerations for analyzing the impacts of an innovation, focusing on the first point about whether or not a given impact is negative or positive.
  • Slides 6-9: Present the background information on Napster and the legal proceedings that resulted from copyright infringement issues. It is important to establish the state of online music sharing/streaming in the late 1990’s when Napster emerged so that students understand the controversy surrounding its creation and implementation. Mention the conflict with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and how not having access to information/data under the DMCA can be harmful as well as beneficial.
  • Slide 10: Have students analyze whether or not they think Napster was an ethical innovation by writing down the beneficial and harmful impacts of its creation and use.  Slide 11 provides some possible answers to the prompt.

The Digital Divide (Slides 12 - 17):

  • Slide 12: Revisit the necessary considerations for analyzing the impacts of an innovation, emphasizing the second point about geography and socioeconomic factors influencing the impact a given innovation has on a specific person or group of people.
  • Slide 13: Some students have little/no understanding of how other people live in the world and the factors that limit impact or increase the divide among various groups of people based on geography, culture, and socioeconomic status. Have students discuss their thoughts on the factors in a person's life that would cause Napster's creation and use to have no impact.  Slide 14 gives specific reasons as to why a given person would be unaffected by a music-sharing (or any Internet-based) technology.
  • Slides 15-17: Ask students if they’ve heard of the digital divide.  Then present these slides, which define the term “digital divide” and discuss factors that contribute to it in the United States and on a global level.  The slides contain several links and videos to supplement the information:
  • Slide 18: Reducing the Divide (The Open Movement)
    • Discuss the concepts of Open Access, Creative Commons licensing, and open-source software. Ask the students to consider how public access to scientific results improves people's lives and reduces the gap between "haves" and "have-nots".

Independent Analysis (20 min)

For this portion of the lesson, students will be analyzing the impacts of two innovations: artificial intelligence and the Find My Friends App.  A worksheet for this activity (“Analyzing Impacts of Digital Innovations”) can be found in the lesson resources folder (Lesson1_5wkst.docx).

  • Slide 19 (Innovation #1): Students will be watching this video about artificial intelligence (0:00 – 5:12) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95KhuSbYJGE .  Point out the example on the worksheet table that has been given as a model of how to fill out the table.  Give students time to fill out the front of the worksheet as they watch the video and a few minutes after watching the video to write down more of their thoughts.  Then share out in groups and as a class.  The specific contents of the video are as follows:
    • Basic assumption: It’s unethical NOT to develop artificial intelligence.
    • Robots that learn, problem-solve, and are creative have been around since mid-20th century.
    • People are threatened: why hire people if you can have a robot?
    • Robots for everything: Google self-driving car, Watson going for diagnostic medicine, Perry Mastron for legal needs
    • Robots can do so much: not just boring, repetitive, dangerous, but also complex thinking jobs
    • Is it ethical to stop improvement? The ethic of truths: we need things like cheaper, better medical care.
    • The printing press challenged the status quo. Old inventions caused problems, too.
    • Ethics of progress: does the possibility of atrocity (nuclear bomb) mean we shouldn't develop nuclear power?
    • Is it unethical to stop the development of artificial intelligence?
    • (STOP at 5:12) after that it’s about emotion. (skip it)
  • Slide 20 (Innovation #2): Have students fill out the back of the worksheet as they read the article about the Find My Friends App: http://www.news.com.au/technology/gadgets/these-smartphone-users-share-how-tracking-app-find-my-friend-has-saved-them/story-fn6vihic-1226752063613 (If doing this lesson without a computer, you’ll need to print out copies of the article for students to read.)  Allow students to discuss their findings with a partner or in groups.  Get a few responses from groups if time permits.

 

Wrap Up (5 min)

  • Slide 21: Students journal about the following prompt: If you come up with an innovation that solves a problem, what concerns do you need to consider before releasing it to the world?  (Possible answers: Whom will it benefit or harm?  Are there people it won't reach at all?)

Homework:

Students will analyze the innovation of 3D printing in the same manner they did for AI and the Find My Friends App, except they will be finding at least one online source on their own from which to draw their information.  Provide students with the “Lesson 1.5 Homework” found in the lesson resource folder (Lesson1_5hw.docx) and provide them with the instructions given on Slide 22.   

This assignment gives students practice analyzing the impacts of an innovation on their own, as well as attributing facts to a resource and the information to include for that resource for the Explore Performance Task.  (The Explore PT is introduced later in the curriculum.)  The worksheet Lesson1_5hw (in curriculum resources folder) can be used to support students, or they can write this information on a blank piece of paper, etc.  The worksheet does not specify which innovation they are researching, so you could reuse it for future research related to impacts of innovations. 


Options for Differentiated Instruction

For students who require more time for processing and writing down the impacts of AI, show the video a second time (the narrator in the video talks quickly).  

If time is limited, split students up so that half of them are analyzing AI and the other half are analyzing the Find My Friends App.  Have students review their findings with another student who analyzed the same innovation.  Then have them jigsaw (https://www.teachervision.com/group-work/cooperative-learning/48532.html ) with students who analyzed the other innovation to share what they found.

Guided notes would be helpful for ELL or SpED.


Evidence of Learning

Formative Assessment

Journal:

  • Have students respond to the following prompt:
    • If you come up with an innovation that solves a problem, what concerns do you need to consider before releasing it to the world?

Homework:

  • Research the impacts of 3D printing.

Summative Assessment

Explore Performance Task

Lesson Summary

Summary

Previous lessons in the "Your Virtual World" have investigated the impact of computer innovations on society. In this lesson, students will learn how using technology can enhance our abilities to solve larger and broader problems (problem solving). The lesson begins by examining reCAPTCHAs, which most students will be familiar with, but they may not realize how they solve two significant problems.

Outcomes

  • Students will learn how computers are used to aggregate the computational power of individuals to solve large-scale problems through citizen science activities.
  • Students will participate in a citizen science project. Aggregate problem-solving is sometimes called "crowdsourcing."

Overview

  1. Getting Started (5 min) - Think-Pair-Share about reCAPTCHA.
  2. Guided Activity (40 min) - Students examine citizen science and discuss its uses in the scientific community.
  3. Wrap Up (5 min) - Journaling about potential additional uses of mass data collection.
  4. Optional Activities.

Source

This lesson is an adaptation of a Code.org CS-P lesson from 2014.

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Creativity
  • EU 1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
    • LO 1.2.1 - Create a computational artifact for creative expression. [P2]
      • EK 1.2.1C - Computing tools and techniques are used to create computational artifacts and can include, but are not limited to, programming integrated development environments (IDEs), spreadsheets, three-dimensional (3-D) printers, or text editors.
      • EK 1.2.1D - A creatively developed computational artifact can be created by using nontraditional, nonprescribed computing techniques.
    • LO 1.2.2 - Create a computational artifact using computing tools and techniques to solve a problem. [P2]
      • EK 1.2.2A - Computing tools and techniques can enhance the process of finding a solution to a problem.
    • LO 1.2.4 - Collaborate in the creation of computational artifacts. [P6]
      • EK 1.2.4A - A collaboratively created computational artifact reflects effort by more than one person.
      • EK 1.2.4B - Effective collaborative teams consider the use of online collaborative tools.
      • EK 1.2.4D - Effective collaboration strategies enhance performance.
Big Idea - Programming
  • EU 5.1 - Programs can be developed for creative expression, to satisfy personal curiosity, to create new knowledge, or to solve problems (to help people, organizations, or society).
    • LO 5.1.1 - Develop a program for creative expression, to satisfy personal curiosity, or to create new knowledge. [P2]
      • EK 5.1.1E - A computer program or the results of running a program may be rapidly shared with a large number of users and can have widespread impact on individuals, organizations, and society.
Big Idea - Impact
  • EU 7.1 - Computing enhances communication, interaction, and cognition.
    • LO 7.1.2 - Explain how people participate in a problemsolving process that scales. [P4]
      • EK 7.1.2A - Distributed solutions must scale to solve some problems.
      • EK 7.1.2B - Science has been impacted by using scale and "citizen science" to solve scientific problems using home computers in scientific research.
      • EK 7.1.2C - Human computation harnesses contributions from many humans to solve problems related to digital data and the Web.
      • EK 7.1.2D - Human capabilities are enhanced by digitally enabled collaboration.
      • EK 7.1.2E - Some online services use the contributions of many people to benefit both individuals and society.
      • EK 7.1.2F - Crowdsourcing offers new models for collaboration, such as connecting people with jobs and businesses with funding.
  • EU 7.2 - Computing enables innovation in nearly every field.
    • LO 7.2.1 - Explain how computing has impacted innovations in other fields. [P1]
      • EK 7.2.1B - Scientific computing has enabled innovation in science and business.
      • EK 7.2.1E - Open and curated scientific databases have benefited scientific researchers.

Math Common Core Practice:

  • MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

Common Core ELA:

  • RST 12.4 - Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases
  • WHST 12.1 - Write arguments on discipline specific content

NGSS Practices:

  • 8. Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information

Key Concepts

  • Distributed computing solutions can be used to solve problems, collect data, assist with collaboration, and assist scientific research.
  • Strategies for effective collaboration and the selection of the right online tools greatly enhance the ability to solve problems.
  • A computer program or its results may be rapidly shared with a large number of users and can have widespread impact on individuals or groups.

Essential Questions

  • How does computing enhance human communication, interaction, and cognition?

Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: required

Lesson Plan

Getting Started (5 min)

Think-Pair-Share: Solving problems with reCAPTCHA

  1. Show an image of a reCAPTCHA (by visiting a website that employs this technology or from an image search).
  2. Direct students to describe for their elbow partner when and where they have encountered this on the web and discuss why it is used. Discuss how quickly a program can be distributed online and make a difference to many people across the world.
  3. As a class, view the video Fight Spam and Save Shakespeare and discuss:
    • What two problems are being solved with reCAPTCHA?
    • How has reCaptcha used the aggregate computing power of millions of people to solve problems in digitizing old books?
    • Have you heard of other aggregate solutions to problems that are currently being solved?
    • Are there other problems you can think of that a strategy of capturing the work of millions of people and their computers might be able to solve? 

Guided Activities (40 min)

Part 1 (10 min) - Learn about tracking birds with citizen science

Part 2 (15 min) - Participate in citizen science 

  • Direct students to the Zooniverse website: https://www.zooniverse.org/#/projects 
  • Allow students to participate several times. Encourage them to pick a different project each time.
  • As a class, briefly discuss how the student responses will help scientists.
  • Discuss with the class the components of citizen science.
    • A problem to be solved. (How can a computer be used to identify objects? How can a program learn about those objects?)
    • A way for people to participate. (Create data for identifying objects, ex: Plankton)
    • A website or app to aggregate data. (The Zooniverse website)
    • A way to turn the data into knowledge. (Students can brainstorm possible algorithms to handle the data captured.)
  • Ask students if they know of, or can find, other citizen science projects (an Internet search will turn up dozens, possibly some in your area).
  • Describe how effective collaboration can be with people you do not even see and the exponential improvement of performance when an entire crowd shares the work. 
  • Optional: have students work for 5 minutes in a group to identify the components of a selected citizen science project. Have each group share their ideas with the class.
  • Engage students in a discussion of problems that they think a citizen science project could address using computers to harness the power of data from many individuals.

Part 3 (15 min) - Guessing what you are thinking

Play an on-line game which aggregates human information. (Direct students to Akinator.com or 20Q. If these website do not work on student computer, teacher can display the website and students participate as a whole class.)

  • Discuss how the game acts intelligently.
  • Have students work in small groups to devise a method to collect data to teach a computer how to play 20 questions. Each group should share their ideas.

Wrap Up (5 min)

In their journals, have students describe a mobile app that uses multiple user input to collect data. Emphasize data collection that would be beneficial to high school students.

Optional Additional Activities

Add knowledge to Wikipedia

The purpose of this activity is for students to contribute their knowledge to the aggregated collection of knowledge known as "Wikipedia."

  • Divide the class into teams of two.
  • Instruct students to think of topics they have some knowledge of: a sport, music, their community, a hobby, or other expertise. Direct them to explore the content on that topic on Wikipedia.
  • Each team should work independently to learn how to modify a Wikipedia page and then add some content to the topic. Encourage students to be independent learners by working to learn how to make edits with as little help as possible from the teacher.
  • At the end of class summarize student learning through a discussion or by summarizing the steps of the Wikipedia editing process in their journals. Additionally, students could collaboratively write a paragraph about how they worked together to complete the task.

Learn about Kickstarter

  • Direct students to research Kickstarter.com. Ask them to choose a current project that they think is worthy of funding and justify that judgment. Suggest that the students think of a project that they would like to see as a good candidate for Kickstarter.

Learn about Waze

Use Search Trends as Predictors 

  • Ask students to learn about how search trends can be used as predictors. They should share what they learned with the class by any creative means.

More Citizen Science

  • Find a citizen science project that is of interest to you. Participate in the project. Report your experiences in any creative format: a report, a diorama, a website, video, etc.

Picture Stitching 

"Picture Stitching" is the practice of blending hundreds of photos to create one huge detailed picture.

  • Investigate the stitched photo of the 365-gigapixel image of Mont Blanc that was created by stitching together 70,000 images http://www.in2white.com/# . 

Evidence of Learning

Formative Assessment

Can students imagine additional possible crowdsourcing or citizen science projects?

How does online collaboration improve problem solving abilities?


Summative Assessment

Sample assessment questions:

  • Explain the dual purposes of a reCAPTCHA.
  • Explain how people can add value to citizen science projects, using several examples.
  • Explain how people can add value to an on-line guessing game. 
  • Create a possible flow chart or description of how data collected online can be used to help computers learn.

Lesson Summary

Summary:

This is the unit assessment for the first unit of the AP Computer Science Principles curriculum - Your Virtual World.  This curriculum provides both a testbank of questions with answers for objective questions, and a sample final unit exam prototype for teacher use extracted from the testbank.  

Outcomes:

  • Students will have demonstrated their learninging in this unit through answers to both objective and essay questions

Overview:

  1. Hand out assessment (2 min)
  2. Students write answers to assessment (46 min)
  3. Collect and grade the assessment (2 min)

Learning Objectives

Common Core ELA:

  • RST 12.2 - Determine central ideas and conclusions in the text
  • RST 12.4 - Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases
  • RST 12.7 - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media
  • RST 12.8 - Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text
  • RST 12.9 - Synthesize information from a range of sources
  • RST 12.10 - Read and comprehend science/technical texts
  • WHST 12.1 - Write arguments on discipline specific content
  • WHST 12.2 - Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes
  • WHST 12.4 - Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
  • WHST 12.5 - Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting
  • WHST 12.6 - Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update writing products

NGSS Practices:

  • 3. Planning and carrying out investigations
  • 4. Analyzing and interpreting data
  • 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
  • 7. Engaging in argument from evidence
  • 8. Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information

NGSS Content:

  • HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

Key Concepts

This assessment ascertains that students have a basic understandings of all the concepts presented in the unit, therefore, all learning objectives are assessed in this unit.


Essential Questions

  • How can a creative development process affect the creation of computational artifacts?
  • How can computing and the use of computational tools foster creative expression?
  • How can computing extend traditional forms of human expression and experience?
  • How are vastly different kinds of data, physical phenomena, and mathematical concepts represented on a computer?
  • How does abstraction help us in writing programs, creating computational artifacts and solving problems?
  • How does computing enhance human communication, interaction, and cognition?
  • How does computing enable innovation?
  • What are some potential beneficial and harmful effects of computing?
  • How do economic, social, and cultural contexts influence innovation and the use of computing?

Students should be aware of the magnitude of impact on individuals and society that result from technological advancements in computing, as well as the rapid pace of change that occurs because of new developments.

Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: optional

In the Lesson Resources folder:

  • "Unit 1 Summative Assessment Test DATABASE - AP CSP"
    • the compiled Unit Test testbank 
  • "Unit 1 Summative Sample Test student copy- AP CSP"
    • a sample exam
  • "Unit 1 Summative Assessment DATABASE ANSWERS"
    • answer key for the Unit Test testbank
  • "Unit 1 Summative Sample Test ANSWERS- AP CSP"
    • answer key for sample exam
  • The instructor will have to review and develop their own evaluation of the essay questions.

Lesson Plan

Getting Started (2 min)

Make sure each student has a copy of the assessment and the necessary writing instruments.

Independent Activity (46 min)

Allow one 45-50 minute class session to administer this assessment.  

Distribute the Unit Assessment Test, which consists of 25 objective questions and a choice of four essay prompts. (Teachers can instruct students in selecting one or more short essay responses for students to answer, based on teacher preferences and time allotments.) 

Wrap Up (2 min)

Collect all papers from the students.


Evidence of Learning

Summative Assessment

This is the summative unit assessment for Unit 1 - Your Virtual World.  A sample summative test and a testing databank of questions are provided by the curriculum.  (Note that the sample assessment may not be appropriate for some classes, depending on the particular focus that the teacher has taken -- e.g., the sample assessment includes hexadecimal conversions, which are an optional component of Lesson 1-4.)

Lesson Summary

Pre-lesson preparation

Review the Teaching Technical Writing slides to help prepare teaching the topics of research and writing. It may be wise to review citation styles and pick one you want your students to use -- as long as they are consistent, the particular style should not matter. For Session 2, you can print out the Cut it Out activities from the slides for your students if you want them to try for themselves on paper.

Summary

Students will learn the basics of technical writing and research, practicing skills including finding good sources, citing properly, and differentiating between quoting, summarizing, and plagiarism.

Outcomes

  • Students will practice the style and process of technical writing.
  • Students will learn and employ practical writing advice.
  • Students will identify good and bad sources of information.
  • Students will learn the importance of citing sources.
  • Students will recognize there are different styles of citations.
  • Students will quote and summarize from information sources.
  • Students will understand the definition and consequences of plagiarism.
  • Students will differentiate between plagiarism and proper attribution.

Overview

Session 1

  1. Getting Started (5 min)
    • What is research?
  2. Activity (15 min)
    • Finding good sources
  3. Activty (25 min)
    • Plagiarism vs. Quotation vs. Paraphrasing
  4. Wrap-up (5 min)

Session 2

  1. Getting Started (5 min)
    • Who writes?
  2. Guided Activity (40 min)
    • Cutting out useless words
    • Practice assessing written responses
  3. Wrap-up (5 min)

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Impact
  • EU 7.2 - Computing enables innovation in nearly every field.
    • LO 7.2.1 - Explain how computing has impacted innovations in other fields. [P1]
      • EK 7.2.1B - Scientific computing has enabled innovation in science and business.
      • EK 7.2.1C - Computing enables innovation by providing the ability to access and share information.
  • EU 7.5 - An investigative process is aided by effective organization and selection of resources. Appropriate technologies and tools facilitate the accessing of information and enable the ability to evaluate the credibility of sources.
    • LO 7.5.1 - Access, manage, and attribute information using effective strategies. [P1]
      • EK 7.5.1A - Online databases and libraries catalog and house secondary and some primary sources.
      • EK 7.5.1B - Advance search tools, Boolean logic, and key words can refine the search focus and/or limit search results based on a variety of factors (e.g., data, peer-review status, type of publication).
      • EK 7.5.1C - Plagiarism is a serious offense that occurs when a person presents another's ideas or words as his or her own. Plagiarism may be avoided by accurately acknowledging sources.
    • LO 7.5.2 - Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility. [P5]
      • EK 7.5.2A - Determining the credibility of a source requires considering and evaluating the reputation and credentials of the author(s), publisher(s), site owner(s), and/or sponsor(s).
      • EK 7.5.2B - Information from a source is considered relevant when it supports an appropriate claim or the purpose of the investigation.

Common Core ELA:

  • RST 12.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
  • RST 12.2 - Determine central ideas and conclusions in the text
  • RST 12.5 - Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies
  • RST 12.6 - Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure
  • RST 12.7 - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media
  • RST 12.8 - Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text
  • RST 12.9 - Synthesize information from a range of sources
  • RST 12.10 - Read and comprehend science/technical texts
  • WHST 12.2 - Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes
  • WHST 12.4 - Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
  • WHST 12.5 - Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting
  • WHST 12.7 - Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question
  • WHST 12.8 - Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source
  • WHST 12.9 - Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research

NGSS Practices:

  • 1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
  • 7. Engaging in argument from evidence
  • 8. Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information

Key Concepts

  • Research involves finding good sources of information and synthesizing knowledge to convey your understanding to others.
  • Attribution of ideas, information, and quotes is an important facet of research.
  • Plagiarism is a complex unethical practice that is not limited to simply copying language, and softer forms of plagiarism should be understood and avoided. 
  • Differentiating the quality of one source from another can be challenging, and often relies on contextual information (such as author, location, date of publication).

Essential Questions

  • How does computing enhance human communication, interaction, and cognition?

Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: required

Additional resources on the basics of research include the following. Keep in mind that what will benefit students the most for this lesson is to focus on tips and guidelines related to content rather than generic advice like avoiding too many adverbs.

Lesson Plan

Session 1

Getting Started (5 min)

Discussion: What is research?

Refer to the "Teaching Technical Writing" slides in the Resources folder for an overview on technical writing and the process of research as well as advice on teaching those topics.

  • To broach the topic of research and provide some basic definitions, start off with a guided discussion and pose the following questions to your students:
    • What kinds of research have you done before? What exactly did you do? Did you follow a process? What was the hardest part?
    • What is research? What are the steps of research? 
    • Writing a research report is sometimes referred to as technical writing. How does technical writing differ from other kinds of writing, like the kind you might do in an English class?
  • Remind students about the upcoming performance task and the expectations.
  • The first step of research is picking a topic and finding sources, which segues into the next activity. For the purposes of practice, today's research topic is already chosen.
  • A key insight to grasp is the difference between researching for yourself alone and researching to later convey your understanding through writing. When searching for information on your own, you may be satisfied with simpler, summarizing sources such as Wikipedia. However, when you intend to communicate and transmit research to others, you become responsible for its quality. For that reason both the quality of your original sources and attributing them (that is, not plagiarizing) become of paramount importance.

Activity (15 min)

Discussion about good sources of information and what meets that criteria [5 min]

  • As a class, have your students try to list as many sources of information they can think of (up to a reasonable amount). Then ask which of these would be considered "good" sources of information, and why? What criteria make one source better than another? Can they think of a "bad" source of information? What makes it that way?

Finding good sources of information [10 min]

  • Each student receives a copy (paper or electronic) of the "Website Evaluation Guide"
  • Several things to note and keep in mind while using the EasyBib guide:
    • The criteria for evaluating websites are at the end of the guide. Some of the guidelines are vague; you may want to discuss a few precise examples with students.
    • When doing research, the most crucial criteria for evaluating any source are the author's purpose and goal behind writing their article. Why did they write what they wrote? Students should always question an author's motivations while assessing sources (not just as a challenge, but to really understand the author and greater context). Is there some monetary reason for their authorship (which is not necessarily bad) such as they are journalists and it is their job, or they are running a website to support advertisements? Does the author have an immediate or indirect connection to the topic they are covering, such as are they an expert on the topic or an outside observer? Does the author have any potential political or other partisan reason for writing their source?  
    • The lack of a named author or editor is not automatically a mark against a source, depending on the context. Some sources publish good information without a specific author, such as Associated Press articles that lack bylines.
    • In terms of authorship, the EasyBib guide uses examples such as "the author is a journalist" as a positive source in contrast with someone with "journalistic experience" as a negative source. These distinctions are sometimes unclear. While verifiable credentials may help assess trustworthiness of an author, some credentials may be fabricated or otherwise made to appear legitimate. Even verifiable journalists and other authors may be untrustworthy on certain topics or under certain circumstances. Again, the greater context matters. Students should be aware of this possibility and always ask themselves what an author's motivations for writing the given article may be.
    • A website or other source adopting legitimate-sounding names or titles (such as "Encyclopedia") should not factor into positive criteria. Some sources will mislead for advertising or other purposes by taking lengths to appear credible.
    • In terms of "currency" and up-to-dateness, both the context and purpose matter. A news source with an article that is no longer current but was covering news at the time is not necessarily a bad source. Similarly, informative articles that are several years old can still be valid depending on their purposed and topics they cover.
  • Have students review the "Finding sources for your research" handout.
  • A difference that students should keep in mind is the one between content distribution sources and content producers. In the case of a service like YouTube, the site itself is not a source (unless it is an official video from the company) -- the user who originally produces the videos is the source. So the fact that a video on YouTube does not inherently make it good or bad; it depends on the legitimacy of the video maker.

Activity (25 min)

Discussion about quoting, paraphrasing with attribution, and plagiarism [15 min]

  • Use the "Writing Tips: Plagiarism vs. Citation" slides in the Resources folder to aid the discussion and give examples of plagiarism
  • All academic writing requires appropriate attribution. The purpose of citation is multifaceted: it credits the original thinker, it establishes a chain of evolving ideas, and it demonstrates the writer has done a suitable job researching sources. Citing sources properly lends credibility to the researcher and is a necessary persuasive tool.
  • Show or discuss an example citation (ideas: a quote, an in-text parenthetical citation, a citation from a paper's bibliography)
  • Rule of thumb: if you are not the original source of an idea or fact that is not common knowledge, you should cite it!
  • Any sentence you write that relies on an idea that is not your own should be cited. If the whole paragraph is about an idea from the same source, you can place the citation at the end of the paragraph.
  • Discuss the definitions and difference among quoting, paraphrasing, and plagiarizing a source. 
    • Plagiarism is taking credit for someone else's ideas as if they were your own.
      • Plagiarism is dishonest and unethical, and it ultimately undermines the credibility of the plagiarist.
      • The consequences of plagiarism are quite severe: you can be expelled from college, be fired from your job, and even have your degree revoked if you plagiarize.
    • Quotation is taking words verbatim from a source, surrounding those words with quotation marks, and specifically naming who said the quote and when/where.
      • In general, quotes should be no longer than a sentence or two at most.
      • Ideally, quotations should only be used as secondary evidence or to illustrate a point already made in your writing.
      • Quotation is not plagiarism as long as it is properly attributed.
      • Improper quotation (lifting text verbatim without using double quotes and/or stating the original source) is plagiarism.
    • Paraphrasing is taking words or ideas from someone and rewriting or condensing them in your own writing.
      • Try to be as clear as possible when you are paraphrasing to convey the source and what it is you are paraphrasing
      • Paraphrasing can be plagiarism:
        • Near-verbatim paraphrasing (just changing or omitting a few words or swapping in synonyms) is plagiarism
        • Summarizing without citing the source is plagiarism
  • Finish with the examples in the slides

Practice judging plagiarism vs. appropriate citations [10 min]

  • Give your students the handouts for "Examples of Paraphrasing" and "Plagiarism vs. Paraphrasing Exercise" (in the Resources folder) and have them complete it in pairs, groups, or as a class. Go over the correct answers and have them discuss why they labelled each.

Wrap-up (5 min)

Journal Entry

With the time remaining, have students reflect and write in their journal what topics they are considering for their performance task and which sources of information they plan to find first.

Session 2

Getting Started (5 min)

Discussion: Who writes?

Use the "Writing Tips Process and Style" slides in the Resources folder to guide this lesson and begin with the questions and overview on slides 2 and 3.

Guided Activity (40 min)

Interactive Lesson: The Writing Process [20 min]

  • Have your students take notes. Warn them that this will be used in their homework!
  • Continuing with the slides, go over the Writing Process and Style sections
  • For the "Cut it Out" exercises in the slides, you may want to have your students follow along on print-outs of the slides.
  • Continue through the rest of the slides

Group Activity [20 min]

  • Pass the "Assessing Sample Performance Task Responses" handouts to your students.
  • In pairs or groups, have your students complete the first handout, and before moving onto the next one, discuss with a group your decisions on how to assess the writing (the Assessments folder should have an example key)
  • Complete the remaining handouts in the same fashion 

Wrap-up (5 min)

Journal Entry or Homework: two options

Have your students reflect and write responses to one or both of the following:

  • Write in your journal how you think technology and computers have changed research and writing over the past hundred years.
  • Make a bulleted list of 10 writing tips you were taught about today (which you can reuse when writing your performance tasks in the future).

 


Evidence of Learning

Formative Assessment

Session 1 Journal:

  • Have your students reflect and write in their journal what topics they are considering for their performance task and which sources of information they plan to find first.

Session 2 Journal / Homework:

  • Have your students reflect and write responses to one or both of the following:
    • Write in your journal how you think technology and computers have changed research and writing over the past hundred years.
    • Make a bulleted list of 10 writing tips you were taught about today (which you can reuse when writing your performance tasks in the future).

 


Lesson Summary

Summary: Students will complete a practice partial Explore Performance Task by creating an artifact of the student's choosing. This is the student’s first exposure to a CS Principles Performance Task; therefore, this is a guided lesson.

Outcomes:

  • Students will use the Internet to research a technology of the student’s choice and create an artifact to report on the research.

Overview:

Session 1:

  1. Getting Started (5 min)
    1. A quick activity that requires an effective internet search
  2. Activity (40 min)
    1. Critical Reading Skills Activity [15 min]
    2. Brainstorming Activity [10 min]
    3. Practice Task Activity [15 min]
  3. Wrap-up (5 min)

Session 2:

  1. Getting Started (5 min)
  2. Guided Activity (40 min)
    • Work on practice performance task
  3. Wrap-up (5 min)

Learning Objectives

CSP Objectives

Big Idea - Creativity
  • EU 1.1 - Creative development can be an essential process for creating computational artifacts.
    • LO 1.1.1 - Apply a creative development process when creating computational artifacts. [P2]
      • EK 1.1.1A - A creative process in the development of a computational artifact can include, but is not limited to, employing nontraditional, nonprescribed techniques; the use of novel combinations of artifacts, tools, and techniques; and the exploration of personal curiosities.
      • EK 1.1.1B - Creating computational artifacts employs an iterative and often exploratory process to translate ideas into tangible form.
  • EU 1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
    • LO 1.2.1 - Create a computational artifact for creative expression. [P2]
      • EK 1.2.1A - A computational artifact is something created by a human using a computer and can be, but is not limited to, a program, an image, an audio, a video, a presentation, or a Web page file.
      • EK 1.2.1C - Computing tools and techniques are used to create computational artifacts and can include, but are not limited to, programming integrated development environments (IDEs), spreadsheets, three-dimensional (3-D) printers, or text editors.
      • EK 1.2.1E - Creative expressions in a computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas or interests.
  • EU 1.3 - Computing can extend traditional forms of human expression and experience.
    • LO 1.3.1 - Use computing tools and techniques for creative expression. [P2]
Big Idea - Impact
  • EU 7.2 - Computing enables innovation in nearly every field.
    • LO 7.2.1 - Explain how computing has impacted innovations in other fields. [P1]
      • EK 7.2.1C - Computing enables innovation by providing the ability to access and share information.
  • EU 7.3 - Computing has global effects — both beneficial and harmful — on people and society.
    • LO 7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
      • EK 7.3.1A - Innovations enabled by computing raise legal and ethical concerns.
  • EU 7.4 - Computing innovations influence and are influenced by the economic, social, and cultural contexts in which they are designed and used.
    • LO 7.4.1 - Explain the connections between computing and real-world contexts, including economic, social, and cultural contexts. [P1]
      • EK 7.4.1A - The innovation and impact of social media and online access varies in different countries and in different socioeconomic groups.
      • EK 7.4.1B - Mobile, wireless, and networked computing have an impact on innovation throughout the world.
  • EU 7.5 - An investigative process is aided by effective organization and selection of resources. Appropriate technologies and tools facilitate the accessing of information and enable the ability to evaluate the credibility of sources.
    • LO 7.5.1 - Access, manage, and attribute information using effective strategies. [P1]
      • EK 7.5.1A - Online databases and libraries catalog and house secondary and some primary sources.
      • EK 7.5.1C - Plagiarism is a serious offense that occurs when a person presents another's ideas or words as his or her own. Plagiarism may be avoided by accurately acknowledging sources.
    • LO 7.5.2 - Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility. [P5]
      • EK 7.5.2A - Determining the credibility of a source requires considering and evaluating the reputation and credentials of the author(s), publisher(s), site owner(s), and/or sponsor(s).

Math Common Core Practice:

  • MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

Common Core ELA:

  • RST 12.3 - Precisely follow a complex multistep procedure
  • RST 12.7 - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media
  • WHST 12.6 - Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update writing products
  • WHST 12.7 - Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question

NGSS Practices:

  • 3. Planning and carrying out investigations

Key Concepts

  • Students will revisit concepts learned in Unit 1 to complete a teacher-guided mini-performance task.
  • The teacher will utilize different reading and writing strategies to assist the students in interpreting a performance task and creating an artifact.
  • Students may need guidance in selecting a format for their artifact. Students should be encouraged to create an artifact using a tool they are already familiar with so the lesson can focus more on research, applying Unit 1 lessons and creativity.

Essential Questions

  • How can a creative development process affect the creation of computational artifacts?
  • How can computing and the use of computational tools foster creative expression?
  • How can computing extend traditional forms of human expression and experience?
  • How does computing enhance human communication, interaction, and cognition?
  • How does computing enable innovation?
  • What are some potential beneficial and harmful effects of computing?
  • How do economic, social, and cultural contexts influence innovation and the use of computing?

Teacher Resources

Student computer usage for this lesson is: required

In the Lesson Resources folder:

  • Presentation with sample visual artifacts: artifact.pptx
  • Practice Performance Task Rubrics:
    • CS Matters version (uses 5-point scale): Unit 1 Practice Performance Task Rubric CSM.docx
    • College Board version (uses 3-point scale): Unit 1 Practice Performance Task Rubric CB.docx
  • Practice Performance Task:  
    • College Board version for both Investigate (no longer part of CS Principles), Explore (visual and written artifacts), and Create tasks (for teacher reference only): CS_Principles_Performance_Assessment2014-1-9.pdf 
    • Explore task only (useful for sharing with students): Explore Performance Task.pdf

For the Teacher:

Lesson Plan

Session 1

Getting Started (5 min)

A quick activity that requires an effective Internet search

  • Example: Count your clicks! In as few “clicks” as possible, locate a web site for a physical store within 50 miles of your school where you can purchase a blue laptop bag.

Activity (25 min)

Explore Performance Task - Introduction

  • Each student receives a copy (paper or electronic) of the Explore performance task (Explore Performance Task.pdf) and the CS Matters scoring rubric (Unit 1 Practice Performance Task Rubric CSM.docx). Note: This is the official College Board version, which has not been updated fully for the new version of the rubrics. In particular, the rubric now restricts the permitted file types, and the resource dates in the performance task description are outdated.  Those rubric requirements are more current and should be followed by the students.  Note that the rubric is still likely to change in the future; we have developed a more fine-grained scoring rubric that we recommend using, to give the students more feedback and guidance.  (The College Board rubric uses a 3-point scale; the CS Matters rubric is on a 5-point scale.)
  • Use the provided presentation (artifact.pptx) to give an overview of the requirements for the visual component of the Explore task, and to show the students several example artifacts.  Lead the students in a discussion of how the artifacts do (or do not) meet the requirements in the rubric and task description.
  • Use a variety of pre-reading activities to assist students' understanding of the requirements of the task:
    • Read the section headers.
    • Make predictions of what the students will be doing for the performance task.
    • Notice the structure of the text: introduction and short description, followed by details of the requirements.
    • Make connections between what was learned in Unit 1 with the requirements of the task.
  • Students should read the performance task carefully. Encourage highlighting key terms. If necessary, work with students to transfer the requirements from paragraph form to a bulleted list.

Activity (5 min)

Brainstorming

  1. Students should refer to the topic they chose at the end of Lesson 3. They may either choose this topic to research, or pick another topic from the following choices:
    • Social media 
    • Online retail and banking and online businesses 
    • Cloud data storage 
    • Government surveillance 
  2. If they did not do so at the end of Lesson 3, each student should pick an innovation that connects to the topic chosen. They will research this innovation to create their practice artifact. 

(Limiting the choices will allow students to compare and contrast their final artifacts, facilitate self-assessment, and make it possible to identify exemplars of each option.)

 

Activity (10 min)

Practice Performance Task

Students should begin the practice performance task. (This work will continue in the next class session.) During the class, the teacher should provide guidance to students to stay focused on the outcomes of the task, assist students in breaking down the task into workable steps, and check for students' understanding of the task.

Wrap-up (5 min)

Journal Entry

Give students a few minutes warning before the end of class. With 4 or 5 minutes remaining, have students reflect and write in their journal a verbal snapshot of the artifact they are creating.

Session 2

Getting Started (5 min)

  • Have students write a goal for the class period in their journal. "During this class, I will complete: ..."
  • Spend 2 or 3 minutes discussing difficulties encountered the previous day and possible solutions.
  • As students work, have them consider these questions that they will write hour answers to at the end.
    1. What novel combinations of artifacts, tools and techniques can you use to create your artifact?
    2. How does this artifact express your own creativity and interests?
    3. Consider a web page, poster, sound byte, video or picture as a way to communicate your information. If you were to expand on this project, which would you choose and why?
    4. What tools would you use if you had a week to create a larger project? Do you know how to use all of these tools: text editor, spreadsheet to create charts and graphs, web page design, app or computer program creation tool?

Activity (40 min)

Practice performance task

  • Students continue work on the practice task. Continue providing guidance. 
  • Note: This practice task may need more than two class periods to complete. It may be necessary to break the task into chunks and assign some portions for homework. It would also be beneficial to spend class time after completion to have students present their artifacts to the class, identify exemplars, and discuss lessons learned.

Wrap-Up (5 min)


Options for Differentiated Instruction

Some students will benefit from having a teacher-selected topic and a step-by-step plan for completing the task.


Evidence of Learning

Formative Assessment

While the students are completing the performance task, check for understanding by asking the students:

  • What technology are you researching?
  • What artifact will you be creating? What is your plan?

Summative Assessment

The artifact from this Practice Performance task and a reflection on the creative process can be used as a summative assessment using the rubric in the Teacher Resources